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Archival and Discovery of June 15, 1896 Tsunami Event on Marigrams
 (MI_Metadata)
    fileIdentifier:  gov.noaa.ngdc.mgg.hazards:18960615marigram
    hierarchyLevel:  (MD_ScopeCode) dataset
    contact:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
        organisationName:  DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI > National Centers for Environmental Information
        contactInfo:  (CI_Contact)
            address:  (CI_Address)
                electronicMailAddress:  haz.info@noaa.gov
        role:  (CI_RoleCode) pointOfContact
    dateStamp:  2018-03-19
    metadataStandardName:  ISO 19115-2 Geographic Information - Metadata - Part 2: Extensions for Imagery and Gridded Data
    metadataStandardVersion:  ISO 19115-2:2009(E)
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    spatialRepresentationInfo:  (MD_VectorSpatialRepresentation)
        geometricObjects:  (MD_GeometricObjects)
            geometricObjectType:  (MD_GeometricObjectTypeCode) point
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    identificationInfo:  (MD_DataIdentification)
        citation:  (CI_Citation)
            title:  Archival and Discovery of June 15, 1896 Tsunami Event on Marigrams
            date:  (CI_Date)
                date:  2018-03-19
                dateType:  (CI_DateTypeCode) creation
            identifier:  (MD_Identifier)
                code:
                  Anchor:  DOI doi:10.7289/V57H1GW8
            citedResponsibleParty:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                organisationName:  DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI > National Centers for Environmental Information
                role:  (CI_RoleCode) originator
            citedResponsibleParty:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                organisationName:  DOC/NOAA/OAR/PMEL/NCTR > NOAA Center for Tsunami Research, Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory
                role:  (CI_RoleCode) originator
            citedResponsibleParty:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                organisationName:  DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI > National Centers for Environmental Information
                role:  (CI_RoleCode) publisher
        abstract:  NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information have more than 3,000 tsunami marigram (tide gauge) records in both image and paper format. The majority of these tsunami marigram records were scanned to high-resolution digital tiff images during the NOAA Climate Data Modernization Program (CDMP). There still remain shelves full of deteriorating paper records that are in need of rescue reformatting to scanned images before they are lost. As a follow-up to a successful 2016 BEDI project resulting in the archival and discovery of data held on marigrams during four large tsunamis (1946, 1952, 1960, 1964), marigrams from five additional tsunami events in 1854, 1883, 1896, 1933, and 1968 have been digitized. These additional five tsunami events were generated in both the Pacific and Indian Oceans and are rarely cited in research due to lack of data access. The five tsunami events proposed here for reformat, archive, and discovery in 2017 reside only on these same paper marigram records. Each of these datasets are of great importance as very little digital data exists from tsunamis that occurred during this time period, particularly those prior to the turn of the 20th Century. These events are not only historically important but with new research into tsunami probabilities, are statistically important as well. Similar to seismic hazard analyses, the tsunami community is now focused on tsunami recurrence rates through probabilistic tsunami hazard analysis to support land-use and construction decision-making. As a result, measurements of these tsunamis are not only expected to provide researchers with important information linking earthquake rupture to tsunami generation and propagation characteristics, but will add a significant number of tsunami data points to recurrence rates calculations. All data reformatted as part of this project will be brought into compliance with NOAA Data Directives and meet the requirements for Data Management, Discoverability, Accessibility, Documentation, Readability, and Data Preservation and Stewardship as per the Big Earth Data Initiative (BEDI). BEDI is designed to promote interoperability of Earth observation data across Federal agencies, systems and platforms through the improvement of data management practices and increased discoverability, accessibility, and usability of data collections.
        purpose:  To enable archive and discovery of segments of marigram records on which are recorded sea level measurements of the June 15, 1896 tsunami originating from a magnitude 8.3 earthquake off Sanriku, Japan.
        status:  (MD_ProgressCode) completed
        pointOfContact:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
            organisationName:  DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI > National Centers for Environmental Information
            contactInfo:  (CI_Contact)
                address:  (CI_Address)
                    electronicMailAddress:  haz.info@noaa.gov
            role:  (CI_RoleCode) pointOfContact
        graphicOverview:  (MD_BrowseGraphic)
            fileName: https://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/hazard/data/marigrams/1234/18960615_honolulu_573x300px.png
            fileDescription:  Digitized marigram from Honolulu, Republic of Hawaii, 1896-06-15
            fileType:  png
        descriptiveKeywords:  (MD_Keywords)
            keyword:  Earth Science > Oceans > Tides
            keyword:  Earth Science > Oceans > Tides > Tidal Currents
            keyword:  Earth Science > Oceans > Tides > Tidal Heights
            keyword:  Earth Science > Oceans > Tides > Tidal Range
            keyword:  Earth Science > Oceans > Ocean Waves > Tsunamis
            keyword:  Earth Science > Oceans > Coastal Processes > Tidal Height
            keyword:  Earth Science > Oceans > Coastal Processes > Sea Surface Height
            keyword:  Earth Science > Human Dimensions > Natural Hazards > Tsunamis
            keyword:  Earth Science > Human Dimensions > Natural Hazards > Earthquakes
            type:  (MD_KeywordTypeCode) theme
            thesaurusName:  (CI_Citation)
                title:  Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Science Keywords
                date:  (CI_Date)
                    date:  2018-03-15
                    dateType:  (CI_DateTypeCode) publication
                edition:  8.6
                citedResponsibleParty:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                    organisationName:  NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Earth Science Data and Information System
                    contactInfo:  (CI_Contact)
                        onlineResource:  (CI_OnlineResource)
                            linkage: https://earthdata.nasa.gov/about/gcmd/global-change-master-directory-gcmd-keywords
                            name:  Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Keywords
                            description:  The information provided on this page seeks to define how the GCMD Keywords are structured, used and accessed. It also provides information on how users can participate in the further development of the keywords.
                            function:  (CI_OnLineFunctionCode) information
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        descriptiveKeywords:  (MD_Keywords)
            keyword:  Continent > Asia > Eastern Asia > Japan
            keyword:  Ocean > Pacific Ocean
            keyword:  Continent > North America > United States of America > California
            keyword:  Continent > North America > United States of America > Hawaii
            type:  (MD_KeywordTypeCode) place
            thesaurusName:  (CI_Citation)
                title:  Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Location Keywords
                date:  (CI_Date)
                    date:  2017-07-25
                    dateType:  (CI_DateTypeCode) publication
                edition:  8.6
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                    organisationName:  NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Earth Science Data and Information System
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                            linkage: https://earthdata.nasa.gov/about/gcmd/global-change-master-directory-gcmd-keywords
                            name:  Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Keywords
                            description:  The information provided on this page seeks to define how the GCMD Keywords are structured, used and accessed. It also provides information on how users can participate in the further development of the keywords.
                            function:  (CI_OnLineFunctionCode) information
                    role:  (CI_RoleCode) custodian
        descriptiveKeywords:  (MD_Keywords)
            keyword:  Honolulu
            type:  (MD_KeywordTypeCode) place
            thesaurusName:  (CI_Citation)
                title:  None
                date: (unknown)
        descriptiveKeywords:  (MD_Keywords)
            keyword:  San Francisco Bay
            type:  (MD_KeywordTypeCode) place
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                title:  None
                date: (unknown)
        descriptiveKeywords:  (MD_Keywords)
            keyword:  In Situ Land-Based Platforms > Ocean Platform/Ocean Stations > Coastal Stations
            type:  (MD_KeywordTypeCode) platform
            thesaurusName:  (CI_Citation)
                title:  Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Platform Keywords
                date:  (CI_Date)
                    date:  2018-03-14
                    dateType:  (CI_DateTypeCode) publication
                edition:  8.6
                citedResponsibleParty:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                    organisationName:  NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Earth Science Data and Information System
                    contactInfo:  (CI_Contact)
                        onlineResource:  (CI_OnlineResource)
                            linkage: https://earthdata.nasa.gov/about/gcmd/global-change-master-directory-gcmd-keywords
                            name:  Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Keywords
                            description:  The information provided on this page seeks to define how the GCMD Keywords are structured, used and accessed. It also provides information on how users can participate in the further development of the keywords.
                            function:  (CI_OnLineFunctionCode) information
                    role:  (CI_RoleCode) custodian
        descriptiveKeywords:  (MD_Keywords)
            keyword:  In Situ/Laboratory Instruments > Gauges > Tide Gauges
            type:  (MD_KeywordTypeCode) instrument
            thesaurusName:  (CI_Citation)
                title:  Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Instrument Keywords
                date:  (CI_Date)
                    date:  2018-02-27
                    dateType:  (CI_DateTypeCode) publication
                edition:  8.6
                citedResponsibleParty:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                    organisationName:  NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Earth Science Data and Information System
                    contactInfo:  (CI_Contact)
                        onlineResource:  (CI_OnlineResource)
                            linkage: https://earthdata.nasa.gov/about/gcmd/global-change-master-directory-gcmd-keywords
                            name:  Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Keywords
                            description:  The information provided on this page seeks to define how the GCMD Keywords are structured, used and accessed. It also provides information on how users can participate in the further development of the keywords.
                            function:  (CI_OnLineFunctionCode) information
                    role:  (CI_RoleCode) custodian
        descriptiveKeywords:  (MD_Keywords)
            keyword:  ICSU-WDS > International Council for Science - World Data System
            type:  (MD_KeywordTypeCode) project
            thesaurusName:  (CI_Citation)
                title:  Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Project Keywords
                date:  (CI_Date)
                    date:  2018-03-28
                    dateType:  (CI_DateTypeCode) publication
                edition:  8.6
                citedResponsibleParty:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                    organisationName:  NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Earth Science Data and Information System
                    contactInfo:  (CI_Contact)
                        onlineResource:  (CI_OnlineResource)
                            linkage: https://earthdata.nasa.gov/about/gcmd/global-change-master-directory-gcmd-keywords
                            name:  Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Keywords
                            description:  The information provided on this page seeks to define how the GCMD Keywords are structured, used and accessed. It also provides information on how users can participate in the further development of the keywords.
                            function:  (CI_OnLineFunctionCode) information
                    role:  (CI_RoleCode) custodian
        descriptiveKeywords:  (MD_Keywords)
            keyword:  Big Earth Data Initiative (BEDI)
            type:  (MD_KeywordTypeCode) project
            thesaurusName:  (CI_Citation)
                title:  None
                date: (unknown)
        descriptiveKeywords:  (MD_Keywords)
            keyword:  Climate Data Modernization Program (CDMP)
            type:  (MD_KeywordTypeCode) project
            thesaurusName:  (CI_Citation)
                title:  None
                date: (unknown)
        descriptiveKeywords:  (MD_Keywords)
            keyword:  DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI > National Centers for Environmental Information
            type:  (MD_KeywordTypeCode) dataCenter
            thesaurusName:  (CI_Citation)
                title:  Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Data Center Keywords
                date:  (CI_Date)
                    date:  2018-03-18
                    dateType:  (CI_DateTypeCode) publication
                edition:  8.6
                citedResponsibleParty:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                    organisationName:  NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Earth Science Data and Information System
                    contactInfo:  (CI_Contact)
                        onlineResource:  (CI_OnlineResource)
                            linkage: https://earthdata.nasa.gov/about/gcmd/global-change-master-directory-gcmd-keywords
                            name:  Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Keywords
                            description:  The information provided on this page seeks to define how the GCMD Keywords are structured, used and accessed. It also provides information on how users can participate in the further development of the keywords.
                            function:  (CI_OnLineFunctionCode) information
                    role:  (CI_RoleCode) custodian
        resourceConstraints:  (MD_LegalConstraints)
            useConstraints:  (MD_RestrictionCode) otherRestrictions
            otherConstraints:  Cite as: NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information; NOAA Center for Tsunami Research (2018): Archival and Discovery of June 15, 1896 Tsunami Event on Marigrams. NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information. doi:10.7289/V57H1GW8 [access date]
            otherConstraints:  Use Constraints: Public domain data from the National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI), an agency of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), are freely redistributable with proper metadata and source attribution. Please recognize NCEI as the source of these data. You are not permitted to use NCEI's name or to suggest that NCEI endorses your project or product, without its express written consent. While efforts have been made to ensure that these data are accurate and reliable within the state of the art, NCEI cannot assume liability for any damages or misrepresentation caused by any inaccuracies in the data or as a result of changes to the data caused by system transfers. The user must be aware of data conditions and bear responsibility for the appropriate use of these data with respect to possible errors, original drawing scale, collection methodology, currency of data, and other conditions specific to these data. Distribution Liability: Although every effort has been made to ensure the accuracy of these data, errors and conditions originating from physical sources used to develop these data may be reflected in the data supplied. The client must be aware of data conditions and bear responsibility for the appropriate use of the information with respect to possible errors, original drawing scale, collection methodology, currency of data, and other conditions specific to certain data. In no event shall NCEI be liable for any damages, whether general, special, incidental or consequential damages, arising out of your use of these data. Your sole remedy for damages is to stop using the data. You agree to defend, indemnify, and hold harmless NCEI and its employees or affilitates against any claim, loss, liability or expense, including attorneys' fees, resulting from loss of or damage to property or the injury to or death of any person arising out of the use of the data.
        aggregationInfo:  (MD_AggregateInformation)
            aggregateDataSetName:  (CI_Citation)
                title:  NGDC/WDS Global Historical Tsunami Database
                date:  (CI_Date)
                    date:  2017-06-01
                    dateType:  (CI_DateTypeCode) lastUpdate
                edition: (unknown)
                citedResponsibleParty:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                    organisationName:  DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI > National Centers for Environmental Information
                    contactInfo:  (CI_Contact)
                        onlineResource:  (CI_OnlineResource)
                            linkage: https://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/hazard/tsu_db.shtml
                            protocol:  https
                            name:  NGDC/WDS Global Historical Tsunami Database
                            description:  Access to historical tsunami source and effects information database on tsunami events from 2000 B.C. to the present in the Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific Oceans, and the Mediterranean and Caribbean Seas.
                            function:  (CI_OnLineFunctionCode) search
                    role:  (CI_RoleCode) author
                presentationForm:  (CI_PresentationFormCode) documentDigital
            associationType:  (DS_AssociationTypeCode) largerWorkCitation
            initiativeType:  (DS_InitiativeTypeCode) collection
        aggregationInfo:  (MD_AggregateInformation)
            aggregateDataSetName:  (CI_Citation)
                title:  Marigrams recording tsunamis generated by the June 15, 1896 earthquake
                date:  (CI_Date)
                    date:  2018-03-19
                    dateType:  (CI_DateTypeCode) publication
                identifier:  (MD_Identifier)
                    code:
            associationType:  (DS_AssociationTypeCode) crossReference
            initiativeType:  (DS_InitiativeTypeCode) sciencePaper
        aggregationInfo:  (MD_AggregateInformation)
            aggregateDataSetName:  (CI_Citation)
                title:  Big Earth Data Initiative (BEDI): Archival and Discovery of 1854, 1883, 1896, 1933, and 1968 Tsunami Events on Marigrams
                date:  (CI_Date)
                    date:  2018-03-19
                    dateType:  (CI_DateTypeCode) publication
            associationType:  (DS_AssociationTypeCode) largerWorkCitation
            initiativeType:  (DS_InitiativeTypeCode) project
        language:  eng; USA
        characterSet:  (MD_CharacterSetCode) utf8
        topicCategory:  (MD_TopicCategoryCode) oceans
        extent:  (EX_Extent)
            description:  Coastal Tide Gauge Network of the International Community
            geographicElement:  (EX_GeographicBoundingBox)
                westBoundLongitude:  -157.86667
                eastBoundLongitude:  -122.47834
                southBoundLatitude:  21.30667
                northBoundLatitude:  37.85
            temporalElement:  (EX_TemporalExtent)
                extent:
                  TimePeriod:
                    beginPosition:  1896-06-13T16:33:50Z
                    endPosition:  1896-06-21T19:32:38Z
                    duration:  P8DT2H58M48S
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    contentInfo:  (MI_CoverageDescription)
        attributeDescription:
          RecordType:  Instrument Details
        contentType:  (MD_CoverageContentTypeCode) physicalMeasurement
        dimension:  (MI_Band)
            descriptor:  Elevation of the sea surface level
        rangeElementDescription:  (MI_RangeElementDescription)
            name:  Scale
            definition:  Scale is the scale factor from the marigram graphic to the absolute measurement of the sea surface level. It is in the format 1:#.
            rangeElement:
              Record:  1:6
            rangeElement:
              Record:  1:9
            rangeElement:
              Record:  1:12
            rangeElement:
              Record:  1:24
        rangeElementDescription:  (MI_RangeElementDescription)
            name:  Station
            definition:  Station is the general-purpose identifier for the station. It can be up to 80 alphanumeric characters.
            rangeElement:
              Record:  Values do not exist in a predefined set
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    distributionInfo:  (MD_Distribution)
        distributionFormat:  (MD_Format)
            name:  netCDF
            version:  4
            specification:  Unidata's Network Common Data Form (netCDF)
        distributionFormat:  (MD_Format)
            name:  csv
            version: (unknown)
            specification:  Comma Separated Values file (csv)
            fileDecompressionTechnique:  GZIP
        distributionFormat:  (MD_Format)
            name:  TIFF
            version: (unknown)
            specification:  Tagged Image File Format (TIFF)
            fileDecompressionTechnique:  ZIP
        distributor:  (MD_Distributor)
            distributorContact:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                organisationName:  DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI > National Centers for Environmental Information
                contactInfo:  (CI_Contact)
                    address:  (CI_Address)
                        electronicMailAddress:  haz.info@noaa.gov
                role:  (CI_RoleCode) pointOfContact
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                fees:  Free for online download
        transferOptions:  (MD_DigitalTransferOptions)
            onLine:  (CI_OnlineResource)
                linkage: https://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/thredds/fileServer/marigrams/18960615_1234/digitized/hono_18960615.nc
                protocol:  https
                name:  NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration June 15, 1896 marigram from Honolulu, Hawaii, USA
                description:  Data access to scanned marigram netCDF data.
                function:  (CI_OnLineFunctionCode) download
        transferOptions:  (MD_DigitalTransferOptions)
            onLine:  (CI_OnlineResource)
                linkage: https://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/thredds/fileServer/marigrams/18960615_1234/digitized/saus_18960615.nc
                protocol:  https
                name:  NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration June 15, 1896 marigram from San Francisco Bay (Sausalito), California, USA
                description:  Data access to scanned marigram netCDF data.
                function:  (CI_OnLineFunctionCode) download
        transferOptions:  (MD_DigitalTransferOptions)
            onLine:  (CI_OnlineResource)
                linkage: https://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/thredds/fileServer/marigrams/18960615_1234/digitized/hono_18960615.csv.gz
                protocol:  https
                name:  NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration June 15, 1896 marigram from Honolulu, Hawaii, USA
                description:  Data access to scanned marigram csv data.
                function:  (CI_OnLineFunctionCode) download
        transferOptions:  (MD_DigitalTransferOptions)
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                linkage: https://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/thredds/fileServer/marigrams/18960615_1234/digitized/saus_18960615.csv.gz
                protocol:  https
                name:  NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration June 15, 1896 marigram from San Francisco Bay (Sausalito), California, USA
                description:  Data access to scanned marigram csv data.
                function:  (CI_OnLineFunctionCode) download
        transferOptions:  (MD_DigitalTransferOptions)
            onLine:  (CI_OnlineResource)
                linkage: https://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/hazard/data/marigrams/1234/hono_18960615.zip
                protocol:  https
                name:  NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration June 15, 1896 marigram from Honolulu, Hawaii, USA
                description:  Data access to scanned marigram TIFF image.
                function:  (CI_OnLineFunctionCode) download
        transferOptions:  (MD_DigitalTransferOptions)
            onLine:  (CI_OnlineResource)
                linkage: https://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/hazard/data/marigrams/1234/hono_18960615.zip
                protocol:  https
                name:  NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration June 15, 1896 marigram from San Francisco Bay (Sausalito), California, USA
                description:  Data access to scanned marigram TIFF image.
                function:  (CI_OnLineFunctionCode) download
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    dataQualityInfo:  (DQ_DataQuality)
        scope:  (DQ_Scope)
            level:  (MD_ScopeCode) series
        lineage:  (LI_Lineage)
            statement:  The June 15, 1896 marigrams were stored in boxes until scanned into digital data in 2017-18.
            processStep:  (LE_ProcessStep)
                description:  Marigram TIFF images were loaded into GraphClick and x,y axes were defined for 24 hour periods using the 4 known points option (coordinates at the bottom-left of the graph, bottom-right, top-left and top-right). This option was chosen over other available options to better represent images that may have had a tilted, wrinkled, warped or otherwise damaged paper record. Data points were individually added along the data curves by clicking on the center of the curved line with GraphClick recording x,y values each of those points. These x,y values were exported from GraphClick as a text file and transferred to Microsoft Excel 2016 for formatting of time, units and other general file formatting required for archival. CSV files were converted to netCDF with associated metadata. For records with curved vertical axes, one of the vertical graticules was digitized to create a table of corrections to the x axis as a function of height, and fit with a spline interpolation.
                processor:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                    organisationName:  DOC/NOAA > Center for Tsunami Research
                    role:  (CI_RoleCode) processor
                processingInformation:  (LE_Processing)
                    identifier:  (MD_Identifier)
                        code:
                    softwareReference:  (CI_Citation)
                        title:  GraphClick
                        date:  (CI_Date)
                            date: (unknown)
                            dateType:  (CI_DateTypeCode) creation
                        edition:  GraphClick v.3.0.3 for Mac OS X 10.4
            processStep:  (LE_ProcessStep)
                description:  On any records that included periodical height/time information written on the marigram, such values were compared with the numerical values produced by GraphClick for consistency.
            processStep:  (LE_ProcessStep)
                description:  Values were compared against digital 1 hour data provided by the station operators where available.
            processStep:  (LE_ProcessStep)
                description:  Each station was checked as necessary for observance with Daylight Savings Time.
            source:  (LI_Source)
                description:  Each original marigram was a scroll of paper from which a segment of several days of time series data were scanned and stored as TIFFs, along with the Station, Scale (not always), Dates/Times of the segment (in UTC or local), and Latitude and Longitude of the Station.
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    dataQualityInfo:  (DQ_DataQuality)
        scope:  (DQ_Scope)
            level:  (MD_ScopeCode) series
        report:  (DQ_RelativeInternalPositionalAccuracy)
            measureDescription:  Values obtained by digitization were correlated to tsunami arrival times and hourly predicted tides (to obtain an expectation of tidal range) with those published in the NGDC/WDS Global Historical Tsunami Database.
            result: (unknown)
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    metadataMaintenance:  (MD_MaintenanceInformation)
        maintenanceAndUpdateFrequency:  (MD_MaintenanceFrequencyCode) annually
        maintenanceNote:  Most recent maintenance was made 2018-03-19.