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United States Earthquake Intensity Database, 1638-1985
 (MI_Metadata)
    fileIdentifier:  gov.noaa.ngdc.mgg.hazards:G01142
    language:  eng; USA
    characterSet:  (MD_CharacterSetCode) utf8
    hierarchyLevel:  (MD_ScopeCode) dataset
    contact:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
        organisationName:  DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI> National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
        positionName:  Hazards Data Manager
        contactInfo:  (CI_Contact)
            address:  (CI_Address)
                deliveryPoint:  325 Broadway
                city:  Boulder
                administrativeArea:  CO
                postalCode:  80305-3328
                country:  USA
                electronicMailAddress:  haz.info@noaa.gov
        role:  (CI_RoleCode) pointOfContact
    dateStamp:  2018-07-20
    metadataStandardName:  ISO 19115-2 Geographic Information - Metadata - Part 2: Extensions for Imagery and Gridded Data
    metadataStandardVersion:  ISO 19115-2:2009(E)
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    identificationInfo:  (MD_DataIdentification)
        citation:  (CI_Citation)
            title:  United States Earthquake Intensity Database, 1638-1985
            date:  (CI_Date)
                date:  1972-01-01
                dateType:  (CI_DateTypeCode) publication
            citedResponsibleParty:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                organisationName:  NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information
                role:  (CI_RoleCode) publisher
            citedResponsibleParty:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                individualName:  Nicolas Arcos
                organisationName:  DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI > National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
                contactInfo:  (CI_Contact)
                    phone:  (CI_Telephone)
                        voice:  (303) 497-3158
                        facsimile:  (303) 497-6513
                    address:  (CI_Address)
                        deliveryPoint:  325 Broadway, Mail Code E/NE42
                        city:  Boulder
                        administrativeArea:  CO
                        postalCode:  80305-3328
                        country:  USA
                        electronicMailAddress:  haz.info@noaa.gov
                role:  (CI_RoleCode) pointOfContact
            citedResponsibleParty:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                organisationName:  United States Geological Survey > Earthquakes Hazards Program
                contactInfo:  (CI_Contact)
                    address:  (CI_Address)
                        deliveryPoint:  12201 Sunrise Valley Drive, MS 905
                        city:  Reston
                        administrativeArea:  Virginia
                        postalCode:  20192
                        country:  USA
                    onlineResource:  (CI_OnlineResource)
                        linkage: https://earthquake.usgs.gov/
                        protocol:  http
                        name:  United States Geological Survey (USGS) Earthquakes Hazards Program
                        description:  The USGS Earthquake Hazards Program is part of the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP), established by Congress in 1977. We monitor and report earthquakes, assess earthquake impacts and hazards, and research the causes and effects of earthquakes.
                        function:  (CI_OnLineFunctionCode) information
                    contactInstructions:
                role:  (CI_RoleCode) originator
            presentationForm:  (CI_PresentationFormCode) tableDigital
        abstract:  The United States Earthquake Intensity Database is a collection of damage and felt reports for over 23,000 U.S. earthquakes from 1638-1985. The majority of intensities are for U.S. cities, but there are also a few earthquakes and intensities for Panama (1925-1975), the Philippines (1926-1937), and Mexico (1887-1981). The data were compiled from various publications, newspaper reports, and special catalogs. The annual serial "United States Earthquakes," is the principal data source and provides 90 percent of the observations. Most records in the file contain the date and time of occurrence and location of the earthquake, magnitude, focal depth, two-digit state code, name and coordinates of observing city or town, the observed intensity at each town, and the distance from city (or locality) to epicenter. The file consists of more than 150,000 earthquake intensity observations. The data file serves as an important information source for the preparation of intensity histories that are useful for environmental and hazard impact statements. The file is static and is no longer being updated.
        purpose:  Environmental and hazard impact studies, Research
        credit:  United States Geological Survey (USGS), United States Earthquakes, published annually by: Coast and Geodetic Survey from 1928-68; National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) from 1969-72; NOAA/U.S. Geological Survey from 1973-80; and U.S. Geological Survey from 1981-1986.
        status:  (MD_ProgressCode) completed
        pointOfContact:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
            individualName:  Nicolas Arcos
            organisationName:  DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI > National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
            contactInfo:  (CI_Contact)
                phone:  (CI_Telephone)
                    voice:  (303) 497-3158
                    facsimile:  (303) 497-6513
                address:  (CI_Address)
                    deliveryPoint:  325 Broadway, Mail Code E/NE42
                    city:  Boulder
                    administrativeArea:  CO
                    postalCode:  80305-3328
                    country:  USA
                    electronicMailAddress:  haz.info@noaa.gov
            role:  (CI_RoleCode) pointOfContact
        resourceMaintenance:  (MD_MaintenanceInformation)
            maintenanceAndUpdateFrequency:  (MD_MaintenanceFrequencyCode) notPlanned
            maintenanceNote:  There are no plans to update the data in this collection.
        graphicOverview:  (MD_BrowseGraphic)
            fileName: https://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/hazard/img/usaint.jpg
            fileDescription:  Map of earthquake intensity locations.
            fileType:  jpg
        descriptiveKeywords:  (MD_Keywords)
            keyword:  Earth Science > Solid Earth > Seismology > Earthquake Occurrences
            keyword:  Earth Science > Solid Earth > Seismology > Earthquake Dynamics
            keyword:  Earth Science > Solid Earth > Tectonics > Continental Tectonics
            type:  (MD_KeywordTypeCode) theme
            thesaurusName:  (CI_Citation)
                title:  Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Science Keywords
                date:  (CI_Date)
                    date:  2018-03-15
                    dateType:  (CI_DateTypeCode) publication
                edition:  8.6
                citedResponsibleParty:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                    organisationName:  NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Earth Science Data and Information System
                    contactInfo:  (CI_Contact)
                        onlineResource:  (CI_OnlineResource)
                            linkage: https://earthdata.nasa.gov/about/gcmd/global-change-master-directory-gcmd-keywords
                            name:  Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Keywords
                            description:  The information provided on this page seeks to define how the GCMD Keywords are structured, used and accessed. It also provides information on how users can participate in the further development of the keywords.
                            function:  (CI_OnLineFunctionCode) information
                    role:  (CI_RoleCode) custodian
        descriptiveKeywords:  (MD_Keywords)
            keyword:  INFOTERRA > Disasters > Catastrophic phenomena > Earthquakes
            keyword:  INFOTERRA > Lithosphere > Seismic activity > Seismic activity
            keyword:  INFOTERRA > Lithosphere > Seismic monitoring > Seismic monitoring
            type:  (MD_KeywordTypeCode) theme
            thesaurusName:  (CI_Citation)
                title:  INFOTERRA Keyword Thesaurus
                date: (unknown)
        descriptiveKeywords:  (MD_Keywords)
            keyword:  Epicenter
            keyword:  Hypocenter
            type:  (MD_KeywordTypeCode) theme
            thesaurusName:  (CI_Citation)
                title:  Uncontrolled Keywords
                date: (unknown)
        descriptiveKeywords:  (MD_Keywords)
            keyword:  Seismographs
            keyword:  Seismometers
            type:  (MD_KeywordTypeCode) instrument
            thesaurusName:  (CI_Citation)
                title:  Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Instrument Keywords
                date:  (CI_Date)
                    date:  2018-02-27
                    dateType:  (CI_DateTypeCode) publication
                edition:  8.6
                citedResponsibleParty:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                    organisationName:  NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Earth Science Data and Information System
                    contactInfo:  (CI_Contact)
                        onlineResource:  (CI_OnlineResource)
                            linkage: https://earthdata.nasa.gov/about/gcmd/global-change-master-directory-gcmd-keywords
                            name:  Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Keywords
                            description:  The information provided on this page seeks to define how the GCMD Keywords are structured, used and accessed. It also provides information on how users can participate in the further development of the keywords.
                            function:  (CI_OnLineFunctionCode) information
                    role:  (CI_RoleCode) custodian
        descriptiveKeywords:  (MD_Keywords)
            keyword:  ICSU-WDS > International Council for Science - World Data System
            type:  (MD_KeywordTypeCode) project
            thesaurusName:  (CI_Citation)
                title:  Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Project Keywords
                date:  (CI_Date)
                    date:  2018-03-28
                    dateType:  (CI_DateTypeCode) publication
                edition:  8.6
                citedResponsibleParty:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                    organisationName:  NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Earth Science Data and Information System
                    contactInfo:  (CI_Contact)
                        onlineResource:  (CI_OnlineResource)
                            linkage: https://earthdata.nasa.gov/about/gcmd/global-change-master-directory-gcmd-keywords
                            name:  Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Keywords
                            description:  The information provided on this page seeks to define how the GCMD Keywords are structured, used and accessed. It also provides information on how users can participate in the further development of the keywords.
                            function:  (CI_OnLineFunctionCode) information
                    role:  (CI_RoleCode) custodian
        descriptiveKeywords:  (MD_Keywords)
            keyword:  Global
            type:  (MD_KeywordTypeCode) place
            thesaurusName:  (CI_Citation)
                title:  Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Location Keywords
                date:  (CI_Date)
                    date:  2017-07-25
                    dateType:  (CI_DateTypeCode) publication
                edition:  8.6
                citedResponsibleParty:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                    organisationName:  NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Earth Science Data and Information System
                    contactInfo:  (CI_Contact)
                        onlineResource:  (CI_OnlineResource)
                            linkage: https://earthdata.nasa.gov/about/gcmd/global-change-master-directory-gcmd-keywords
                            name:  Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Keywords
                            description:  The information provided on this page seeks to define how the GCMD Keywords are structured, used and accessed. It also provides information on how users can participate in the further development of the keywords.
                            function:  (CI_OnLineFunctionCode) information
                    role:  (CI_RoleCode) custodian
        descriptiveKeywords:  (MD_Keywords)
            keyword:  DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI > National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
            keyword:  DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NGDC > National Geophysical Data Center, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
            type:  (MD_KeywordTypeCode) dataCenter
            thesaurusName:  (CI_Citation)
                title:  Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Data Center Keywords
                date:  (CI_Date)
                    date:  2018-03-18
                    dateType:  (CI_DateTypeCode) publication
                edition:  8.6
                citedResponsibleParty:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                    organisationName:  NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Earth Science Data and Information System
                    contactInfo:  (CI_Contact)
                        onlineResource:  (CI_OnlineResource)
                            linkage: https://earthdata.nasa.gov/about/gcmd/global-change-master-directory-gcmd-keywords
                            name:  Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Keywords
                            description:  The information provided on this page seeks to define how the GCMD Keywords are structured, used and accessed. It also provides information on how users can participate in the further development of the keywords.
                            function:  (CI_OnLineFunctionCode) information
                    role:  (CI_RoleCode) custodian
        resourceConstraints:  (MD_Constraints)
            useLimitation:  Produced by the NOAA National Geophysical Data Center. Not subject to copyright protection within the United States.
        resourceConstraints:  (MD_LegalConstraints)
            accessConstraints:  (MD_RestrictionCode) otherRestrictions
            otherConstraints:  Distribution liability: NOAA and NCEI make no warranty, expressed or implied, regarding these data, nor does the fact of distribution constitute such a warranty. NOAA and NCEI cannot assume liability for any damages caused by any errors or omissions in these data. If appropriate, NCEI can only certify that the data it distributes are an authentic copy of the records that were accepted for inclusion in the NCEI archives.
        aggregationInfo:  (MD_AggregateInformation)
            aggregateDataSetName:  (CI_Citation)
                title:  Modified Mercalli Intensity Scale of 1931
                date:  (CI_Date)
                    date:  1931-12-01
                    dateType:  (CI_DateTypeCode) publication
                citedResponsibleParty:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                    organisationName:  Wood, Harry O.
                    role:  (CI_RoleCode) author
                citedResponsibleParty:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                    organisationName:  Neumann, Frank
                    role:  (CI_RoleCode) author
                series:  (CI_Series)
                    name:  Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America
                    issueIdentification:  21(4)
                otherCitationDetails:  pp. 277-283
            associationType:  (DS_AssociationTypeCode) crossReference
            initiativeType:  (DS_InitiativeTypeCode) sciencePaper
        language:  eng; USA
        topicCategory:  (MD_TopicCategoryCode) geoscientificInformation
        extent:  (EX_Extent)
            geographicElement:  (EX_GeographicBoundingBox)
                westBoundLongitude:  -180.000000
                eastBoundLongitude:  180.000000
                southBoundLatitude:  4.000000
                northBoundLatitude:  69.000000
            temporalElement:  (EX_TemporalExtent)
                extent:
                  TimePeriod:
                    beginPosition:  1638-06-11
                    endPosition:  1985-12-31
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    contentInfo:  (MI_CoverageDescription)
        attributeDescription:
          RecordType:  Event Date
        contentType:  (MD_CoverageContentTypeCode) physicalMeasurement
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    contentInfo:  (MI_CoverageDescription)
        attributeDescription:
          RecordType:  Earthquake Parameters
        contentType:  (MD_CoverageContentTypeCode) physicalMeasurement
        dimension:  (MD_Band)
            sequenceIdentifier:
              MemberName:
                aName:  Latitude
                attributeType: (unknown)
            descriptor:  Distance measured north or south from the equator. Distance north is positive, distance south is negative.
            maxValue:
              Real:  90.00000
            minValue:
              Real:  -90.00000
            units:
              UnitDefinition:
                identifier:  decimal degrees
                name:  decimal degrees
        dimension:  (MD_Band)
            sequenceIdentifier:
              MemberName:
                aName:  Longitude
                attributeType: (unknown)
            descriptor:  Longitude is measured from the Prime Meridian (which is the north/south line that runs through Greenwich, England), values measured east are positive and values measured west are negative.
            maxValue:
              Real:  180.00000
            minValue:
              Real:  -180.00000
            units:
              UnitDefinition:
                identifier:  decimal degrees
                name:  decimal degrees
        dimension:  (MD_Band)
            sequenceIdentifier:
              MemberName:
                aName:  Focal Depth
                attributeType: (unknown)
            descriptor:  The depth of the earthquake is given in kilometers, positive downward.
            maxValue:
              Real:  0
            minValue:
              Real:  700
            units:
              UnitDefinition:
                identifier:  kilometers
                name:  kilometers
        dimension:  (MD_Band)
            sequenceIdentifier:
              MemberName:
                aName:  Magnitude
                attributeType: (unknown)
            descriptor:  The value in this column contains the earthquake magnitude, it is usually the Ms magnitude. The Ms magnitude is the surface-wave magnitude of the earthquake. The magnitude is a measure of seismic energy. The magnitude scale is logarithmic. An increase of one in magnitude represents a tenfold increase in the recorded wave amplitude. However, the energy release associated with an increase of one in magnitude is not tenfold, but about thirtyfold. For example, approximately 900 times more energy is released in an earthquake of magnitude 7 than in an earthquake of magnitude 5. Each increase in magnitude of one unit is equivalent to an increase of seismic energy of about 1.6 x 10,000,000,000,000 ergs.
            maxValue:
              Real:  0.0
            minValue:
              Real:  9.9
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    contentInfo:  (MI_CoverageDescription)
        attributeDescription:
          RecordType:  Felt Report Parameters
        contentType:  (MD_CoverageContentTypeCode) physicalMeasurement
        dimension:  (MD_Band)
            sequenceIdentifier:
              MemberName:
                aName:  City Name
                attributeType: (unknown)
            descriptor:  The City where the felt report occurred.
        dimension:  (MD_Band)
            sequenceIdentifier:
              MemberName:
                aName:  State
                attributeType: (unknown)
            descriptor:  The State or Province abbreviation where the felt report occurred.
        dimension:  (MD_Band)
            sequenceIdentifier:
              MemberName:
                aName:  Felt Report Latitude
                attributeType: (unknown)
            descriptor:  Distance measured north or south from the equator. Distance north is positive, distance south is negative.
            maxValue:
              Real:  90.00000
            minValue:
              Real:  -90.00000
            units:
              UnitDefinition:
                identifier:  decimal degrees
                name:  decimal degrees
        dimension:  (MD_Band)
            sequenceIdentifier:
              MemberName:
                aName:  Felt Report Longitude
                attributeType: (unknown)
            descriptor:  Longitude is measured from the Prime Meridian (which is the north/south line that runs through Greenwich, England), values measured east are positive and values measured west are negative.
            maxValue:
              Real:  180.00000
            minValue:
              Real:  -180.00000
            units:
              UnitDefinition:
                identifier:  decimal degrees
                name:  decimal degrees
        dimension:  (MD_Band)
            sequenceIdentifier:
              MemberName:
                aName:  Epicentral Distance
                attributeType: (unknown)
            descriptor:  The distance from the earthquake source to the felt report location.
            maxValue:
              Real:  10000
            minValue:
              Real:  0
            units:
              UnitDefinition:
                identifier:  kilometers
                name:  kilometers
        rangeElementDescription:  (MI_RangeElementDescription)
            name:  Modified Mercalli Intensity (MMI)
            definition:  The Modified Mercalli Intensity (Int) is given in Roman Numerals (converted to numbers in the digital database).
            rangeElement:
              Record:  I. Not felt except by a very few under especially favorable circumstances.
            rangeElement:
              Record:  II. Felt only by a few persons at rest, especially on upper floors of buildings. Delicately suspended objects may swing.
            rangeElement:
              Record:  III. Felt quite noticeably indoors, especially on upper floors of buildings, but many people do not recognize it as an earthquake. Standing motor cars may rock slightly. Vibration like passing truck. Duration estimated.
            rangeElement:
              Record:  IV. During the day felt indoors by many, outdoors by few. At night some awakened. Dishes, windows, and doors disturbed; walls make creaking sound. Sensation like heavy truck striking building. Standing motorcars rock noticeably.
            rangeElement:
              Record:  V. Felt by nearly everyone; many awakened. Some dishes, windows, etc., broken; a few instances of cracked plaster; unstable objects overturned. Disturbance of trees, poles, and other tall objects sometimes noticed. Pendulum clocks may stop.
            rangeElement:
              Record:  VI. Felt by all; many frightened and run outdoors. Some heavy furniture moved; a few instances of fallen plaster or damaged chimneys. Damage slight.
            rangeElement:
              Record:  VII. Everybody runs outdoors. Damage negligible in buildings of good design and construction slight to moderate in well built ordinary structures; considerable in poorly built or badly designed structures. Some chimneys broken. Noticed by persons driving motor cars.
            rangeElement:
              Record:  VIII. Damage slight in specially designed structures; considerable in ordinary substantial buildings, with partial collapse; great in poorly built structures. Panel walls thrown out of frame structures. Fall of chimneys, factory stacks, columns, monuments, walls. Heavy furniture overturned. Sand and mud ejected in small amounts. Changes in well water. Persons driving motor cars disturbed.
            rangeElement:
              Record:  IX. Damage considerable in specially designed structures; well-designed frame structures thrown out of plumb; great in substantial buildings, with partial collapse. Buildings shifted off foundations. Ground cracked conspicuously. Underground pipes broken.
            rangeElement:
              Record:  X. Some well-built wooden structures destroyed; most masonry and frame structures destroyed with foundations; ground badly cracked. Rails bent. Landslides considerable from river banks and steep slopes. Shifted sand and mud. Water splashed over banks
            rangeElement:
              Record:  XI. Few, if any (masonry), structures remain standing. Bridges destroyed. Broad fissures in ground. Underground pipelines completely out of service. Earth slumps and land slips in soft ground. Rails bent greatly.
            rangeElement:
              Record:  XII. Damage total. Waves seen on ground surfaces. Lines of sight and level distorted. Objects thrown upward into the air.
        rangeElementDescription:  (MI_RangeElementDescription)
            name:  Unpublished or Group Intensity
            definition:  Definition not provided.
            rangeElement:
              Record:  U = Intensity (MM) assigned that was not listed in the source document.
            rangeElement:
              Record:  G = Intensity grouped I-III in the source document was reassigned intensity III.
        rangeElementDescription:  (MI_RangeElementDescription)
            name:  Country
            definition:  The Country where the felt report occurred.
            rangeElement:
              Record:  ANTIGUA AND BARBUDA
            rangeElement:
              Record:  CANADA
            rangeElement:
              Record:  MEXICO
            rangeElement:
              Record:  PANAMA
            rangeElement:
              Record:  PHILIPPINES
            rangeElement:
              Record:  USA
            rangeElement:
              Record:  USA TERRITORY
        rangeElementDescription:  (MI_RangeElementDescription)
            name:  Data Source
            definition:  This is a code referring to the source of one or more of the reported parameters (e.g., epicenter, city and intensity). References are listed below.
            rangeElement:
              Record:  B = Report by Bollinger and Stover, 1976.
            rangeElement:
              Record:  C = Quarterly Seismological Reports, 1925-27.
            rangeElement:
              Record:  H = Earthquake History of the United States.
            rangeElement:
              Record:  K = Report by Carnegie Institution, 1908, 1910.
            rangeElement:
              Record:  N = Report by Nuttli, 1973.
            rangeElement:
              Record:  Q = Abstracts of Earthquake Reports for the United States, 1933-70.
            rangeElement:
              Record:  S = Unpublished report by Nina Scott, 1965.
            rangeElement:
              Record:  W = Monthly Weather Service Seismological Reports, 1914-24.
            rangeElement:
              Record:  U = United States Earthquakes, 1928-85.
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    distributionInfo:  (MD_Distribution)
        distributionFormat:  (MD_Format)
            name:  ASCII
            version: (unknown)
        distributor:  (MD_Distributor)
            distributorContact:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                organisationName:  DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI> National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
                positionName:  Hazards Data Manager
                contactInfo:  (CI_Contact)
                    address:  (CI_Address)
                        deliveryPoint:  325 Broadway
                        city:  Boulder
                        administrativeArea:  CO
                        postalCode:  80305-3328
                        country:  USA
                        electronicMailAddress:  haz.info@noaa.gov
                role:  (CI_RoleCode) pointOfContact
            distributionOrderProcess:  (MD_StandardOrderProcess)
                fees:  Free online
        transferOptions:  (MD_DigitalTransferOptions)
            transferSize:
              Real:  300.0
            onLine:  (CI_OnlineResource)
                linkage: https://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/nndc/struts/form?t=101650&s=35&d=35
                protocol:  http
                name:  United States Earthquake Intensity Database Search
                description:  Use this form to search the U.S. Earthquake Intensity Database collection of intensities for over 23,000 U.S. earthquakes. The digital database contains information regarding epicentral coordinates, magnitudes, focal depths, names and coordinates of reporting cities (or localities), reported intensities, and the distance from city (or locality) to epicenter. The file is static and is no longer being updated.
                function:  (CI_OnLineFunctionCode) search
            onLine:  (CI_OnlineResource)
                linkage: https://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/hazard/intintro.shtml
                name:  United States Earthquake Intensity Database, 1638-1985
                description:  Description of database, definition of variables, history of earthquake intensity scales, collecting data on earthquake intensity, and references.
                function:  (CI_OnLineFunctionCode) information
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    dataQualityInfo:  (DQ_DataQuality)
        scope:  (DQ_Scope)
            level:  (MD_ScopeCode) dataset
        lineage:  (LI_Lineage)
            statement:  Although the history of the development of earthquake intensity scales is long and interesting, only a brief summary will be presented here. Poarid, an Italian, made the first known attempt to classify earthquakes by intensity in 1627; he used a scale of four levels of intensity to describe effects of earthquakes experienced at different towns. Although many additional attempts were made in the 18th and 19th centuries to develop comprehensive scales for measuring earthquake intensity, none was more widely used than that formulated in 1873 by M. S. de Rossi of Italy and F. A. Forel of Switzerland. But this scale also had severe limitations, and therefore was superseded in the early 1900s by Mercalli's revised intensity scale; it contained 12 levels of intensity. In 1931, a modified version of Mercalli's scale was published by H. O. Wood and Frank Neumann. Known as the Modified Mercalli Intensity Scale of 1931, it has become the standard used by the United States engineering seismology community, which includes the National Geophysical Data Center and the U.S. Geological Survey.
            processStep:  (LI_ProcessStep)
                description:  Earthquake intensity data is gathered.
                processor:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                    organisationName:  United States Geological Survey (USGS)
                    role:  (CI_RoleCode) originator
            source:  (LI_Source)
                description:  The United States Geological Survey (USGS) was responsible for collecting these data.
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    dataQualityInfo:  (DQ_DataQuality)
        scope:  (DQ_Scope)
            level:  (MD_ScopeCode) dataset
        report:  (DQ_CompletenessCommission)
            evaluationMethodDescription:  The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is the Federal agency responsible for collecting earthquake intensity data. The USGS carries out this responsibility using a questionnaire called "Earthquake Report," and also sends field investigators to the scene of destructive earthquakes to analyze the resulting damage. Different versions of the questionnaire have been used since the mid-1920s by several groups who were responsible for collecting intensity data. The present questionnaire contains pertinent questions about earthquake effects that enable a seismologist to evaluate the intensity of the earthquake in all parts of the shaken area; it also is designed specifically for computer processing. In the past, the USGS sent questionnaires immediately after each U.S. earthquake to postmasters, National Weather Service offices, military installations, and others, requesting that they report all effects of the earthquake in their area. If the earthquake was damaging, expert observers travelled to the field to investigate and photograph the damage incurred. This data-collection program was supplemented by newspaper accounts of earthquake effects, published scientific reports, and reports provided by seismology collaborators. After the completed earthquake questionnaires were returned to USGS, a seismologist analyzed each report and assigned intensities on the basis of the effects at each town; intensity (or isoseismal) maps were then constructed for earthquakes felt over large areas. Descriptions and maps of these events were published annually in the United States Earthquakes series, and a summary of the stronger earthquakes (MM intensity >= V) was published periodically in Earthquake History of the United States. The USGS now only canvasses selected earthquakes.
            result: (unknown)
        report:  (DQ_ConceptualConsistency)
            measureDescription:  The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is the Federal agency responsible for collecting earthquake intensity data. The USGS carries out this responsibility using a questionnaire called "Earthquake Report," and also sends field investigators to the scene of destructive earthquakes to analyze the resulting damage. Different versions of the questionnaire have been used since the mid-1920s by several groups who were responsible for collecting intensity data. The present questionnaire contains pertinent questions about earthquake effects that enable a seismologist to evaluate the intensity of the earthquake in all parts of the shaken area; it also is designed specifically for computer processing. In the past, the USGS sent questionnaires immediately after each U.S. earthquake to postmasters, National Weather Service offices, military installations, and others, requesting that they report all effects of the earthquake in their area. If the earthquake was damaging, expert observers travelled to the field to investigate and photograph the damage incurred. This data-collection program was supplemented by newspaper accounts of earthquake effects, published scientific reports, and reports provided by seismology collaborators. After the completed earthquake questionnaires were returned to USGS, a seismologist analyzed each report and assigned intensities on the basis of the effects at each town; intensity (or isoseismal) maps were then constructed for earthquakes felt over large areas. Descriptions and maps of these events were published annually in the United States Earthquakes series, and a summary of the stronger earthquakes (MM intensity >= V) was published periodically in Earthquake History of the United States. The USGS now only canvasses selected earthquakes.
            result: (unknown)
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    dataQualityInfo:  (DQ_DataQuality)
        scope:  (DQ_Scope)
            level:  (MD_ScopeCode) repository
            levelDescription:  (MD_ScopeDescription)
                other:  NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information
        lineage:  (LI_Lineage)
            processStep:  (LE_ProcessStep)
                description:  NOAA created the National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) by merging NOAA's National Climatic Data Center (NCDC), National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC), and National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC), including the National Coastal Data Development Center (NCDDC), per the Consolidated and Further Continuing Appropriations Act, 2015, Public Law 113-235. NCEI launched publicly on April 22, 2015.
                dateTime:
                  DateTime:  2015-04-22T00:00:00
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    metadataMaintenance:  (MD_MaintenanceInformation)
        maintenanceAndUpdateFrequency:  (MD_MaintenanceFrequencyCode) unknown
        maintenanceNote:  This record was automatically modified on 2015-10-01 to include references to NCEI where applicable.
        contact:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
            individualName:  Anna J Milan
            organisationName:  DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI > National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
            positionName:  Metadata Specialist
            contactInfo:  (CI_Contact)
                phone:  (CI_Telephone)
                    voice:  (303) 497-5099
                    facsimile:  (303) 497-6513
                address:  (CI_Address)
                    deliveryPoint:  Mail Code E/NE52
                    deliveryPoint:  325 Broadway
                    city:  Boulder
                    administrativeArea:  CO
                    postalCode:  80305-3328
                    country:  USA
                    electronicMailAddress:  Anna.Milan@noaa.gov
                hoursOfService:  9:00 - 5:00 Mountain
            role:  (CI_RoleCode) pointOfContact